The Red Kangaroo (Osphranter rufus) is the largest of all Kangaroos, the largest terrestrial mammal native to Australia and the largest extant marsupial. It is found across Mainland Australia, except for the more fertile areas, such as Southern Western Australia, the Eastern and Southeastern Coasts, and the rainforests along the Northern coast.
1.The initial description of the species by A.G Desmarest was the published in 1822.
2. The Red Kangaroo is very large Kangaroo with long, pointed ears and a square shaped muzzle (nose).
3. Red Kangaroos are sexually dimorphic as males have short, Red brown fur, fading to pale buff below and on the limbs.
4. Females are smaller than the males and are blue-grey with a brown tinge, pale grey below, although arid zone females are coloured more like males.
5. The Red Kangaroos has two forelimbs with small claws, two muscular hind-limbs, which are used jumping and a strong tail which is often used to create a tripod when standing upright.
6. Male Red Kangaroos grow upto a head and body length of 1.3-1.6 m with a tail that adds a further 1.2 m to the total length and are referred to by Australians as “Big Reds.”
7. Female Red Kangaroos can weigh from 18 to 40 kg, while males typically weigh about twice as much at 55 to 90 kg.
8. The average Red Kangaroo stands approximately 1.5 m tall to the top of the head in upright posture.
9. The Red Kangaroo maintains its internal temperature at a point of homeostasis about 36°C (97 degree Fahrenheit) using a variety of physical, physiological and behavioural adaptations.
10. Red Kangaroos have an insulating layer of fur, being less active and staying in the shade when temperatures are high, panting, sweating and licking its forelimbs.
11. Red Kangaroos have exceptional ability to survive in extreme temperatures using a cooling mechanism where they can increase their panting and sweating rates in high temperatures to cool their bodies.
12. To survive in harsh conditions and conserve energy, Red Kangaroos can enter a state of torpor.
13. Red Kangaroos have a high tolerance for consuming plants high in salt content.
14. Red Kangaroos can survive for long periods without water by reabsorbing water from their urine in the kidneys, minimizing water loss.
15. They can go for extended periods without drinking, meeting moisture requirements from consumed vegetation.
16. The Red Kangaroo’s range of vision in approximately 300° (324° and about 25° overlap) due to the position of its eyes.
17. The Red Kangaroo’s legs work much like a rubber band, with the Achilles tendon stretching as the animal comes down, the releasing its energy to propel the animal up and forward, enabling the characteristic bouncing locomotion.
18. The Red Kangaroos can reach Speed of around 60 Km/h.
19. The Red Kangaroos ranges throughout Western and Central Australia. Its range encompasses scrubland, grassland and desert habitats. It typically inhibits open habitats with some trees for shade.
20. Red Kangaroos are capable of conserving enough water and selecting enough fresh vegetation to survive in an arid environment.
21. During dry times, Kangaroos search for green plants by staying on open grassland and near watercourses.
22. At times, Red Kangaroos congregate in large numbers; in areas with much forage, these groups can number as much as 1,500 individuals.
23. Red Kangaroos are mostly crepuscular and nocturnal, resting in the shade during the day.
24. Another study of Red Kangaroos in central Australia found that most of then stay close to remaining vegetation but disperse to find fresh plants after it rains.